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Extend Your Skills: Code for Mobile Using Your Current .NET Know-How
You'd be surprised how much you already know about mobile app development. If you use Visual Studio 2005 to code Windows desktop or Web apps, then you have everything you need to get started in this fast-growing market. Find out just what you already know and how to bridge the gap between desktop and mobile. Also learn some tips for coding both mobile client and mobile Web apps. 

When making the decision to code for mobile, developers face a wide variety of choices in a fast-changing marketplace. The maturation of Windows Mobile as both a platform and as a dominant force in the mobile market coincides with the debut of some of the coolest devices on the market. Today, you have the Blackjack, the Q, the Dash, the CN3, the JAQ, the Treo, and a ton more. You know the opportunity is there, but do you really want to learn yet another language and platform? Well, you'll be surprised and delighted to know that, whether you realize it or not, you already have all the skills you need to code mobile apps.

In other words, if you're a Windows programmer and use Visual Studio 2005 to do your work, then you have both the skills and the tools necessary to be a mobile programmer. And what you don't know now, you can easily learn. To prove it, I'll go through the skills you're likely already using that are directly applicable to mobile development, and then describe what works a little differently. Then I'll share a few tips for extending your desktop skills to mobile.

One caveat: your approach, tools, and skill set will differ greatly depending on whether you code client apps or Web-based mobile apps. So I'll cover both angles.

Client Apps: What You Already Know
If you're coding an app intended to run directly on a mobile device, then your primary coding tool will be Visual Studio 2005 plus Windows Mobile 6 SDK. (Note: the technical refresh will debut at MEDC 2007.) Released on March 1, 2007, Mobile 6 goes even further than 5 in simplifying development and deployment across multiple platforms at once. The SDK includes documentation, code samples, headers, libraries, and emulators, all of which you'll either need or want when coding mobile apps.

If by chance you've already worked with a previous version of Windows Mobile, you'll notice that the terminology has changed with version 6. Here's a side-by-side comparison, with laymen's terms if you're new to all of this:

Windows Mobile 5.0 Windows Mobile 6 In other words…
Windows Mobile 5.0 for Pocket PC Windows Mobile 6 Classic Touch screen device with no cell phone
Windows Mobile 5.0 for Smartphone Windows Mobile 6 Standard Non-touch screen device with a cell phone
Windows Mobile 5.0 for Pocket PC Phone Edition Windows Mobile 6 Professional Touch screen device with a cell phone

Visual Studio 2005
First of all, take a look at your friend Visual Studio 2005. When you download and install the Windows Mobile 6 SDK, the first things you'll notice are your new Project options (see Figure 1). The second thing you'll notice is a very cool design view for your starter Form (see Figure 2).

Figure 1: Windows Mobile Project Types

Figure 2: Windows Mobile Standard Form Design

Figure 3 shows a side-by-side of your form in design view compared to the emulator so you can see how beautifully accurate the emulator is. As a bonus, if you haven't seen the new Windows Mobile 6 UI, check it out in Figure 4 where I've closed the form and gone back to the "desktop" or Today screen.

Figure 3: Windows Mobile 6 Design View vs. Emulator

Figure 4: Windows Mobile 6 Standard Emulator

This portal and MSDN both have a ton of resources for getting you started in mobile development, so I won't go any further here. What you can take away is that all the starter code you expect is already in place and behaves as it does when building a Windows form. You also get several bonus features, such as the ability to preview your work in one of several mobile emulators, which can be selected from the IDE workspace directly, as well as access to mobile-specific controls, such as Device Components, Device Containers, Device Menus and Toolbars, etc.

.NET (Compact) Framework
As with your Windows apps (hopefully), Windows Mobile devices run on a version of the .NET Framework 2.0. In this case, you'll be using a small footprint version known as .NET Compact Framework 2.0. While the Compact Framework keeps most namespaces, classes, and functionality from the larger .NET Framework, it obviously drops a lot of syntax that isn't needed or doesn't make sense on devices.

Just as an example, when using the System.Windows.Forms.Menu.MenuItemCollection collection to build a menu, you can't call the AddRange method to add an entire collection of sub-menus at once. Instead, you'll need to add each menu item individually using the Add method. But before you scowl, consider that you'll likely be rewriting your UI code anyway, especially the menu. So, changes like this shouldn't pose many limitations for you.

If you want to deploy your apps to both desktop and mobile clients, try to use syntax shared between .NET Framework and .NET Compact Framework. This allows you to extend a single code base across multiple target clients, one of the few things both Marketing and Engineering can agree is a good idea. Read the "Fundamentals of Microsoft .NET Compact Framework Development for the Microsoft .NET Framework Developer" to learn about specific differences between the two. This documentation dates back a ways but still covers helpful essentials. If you want to get serious about the topic, Daniel Moth will cover this in much greater detail at MEDC in a breakout called "Sharing Assets Between the .NET Compact Framework and the .NET Framework."

Also, for the absolute latest on the upcoming .NET Compact Framework V3.5, be sure to attend David Kline's MEDC session, "What's New in .NET Compact Framework v3.5."

Language Choice
When it comes to choice of programming languages, keep using what you're using. Because of the .NET Compact Framework, your managed code compiles the same, whether it's C#, VB.NET, etc. You even analyze the code for your mobile apps the same way, using Visual Studio's Code Analysis tool. Native code works, as well, assuming you use the correct APIs. Now, as to using both at the same time, you can make it work. But rather than get into it here, your best bet would be to attend Chris To's Hands-on Lab called "Incorporating COM Objects into Your .NET Compact Framework Application."

Bridging the Gap
As you can see, you already have the tools and coding skills you need to build mobile apps. If you're new to this platform, though, you'll quickly discover key design differences, mostly around UI. Here are some tips for moving your desktop apps to mobile or starting entirely new mobile apps.

  • The UI will be your biggest change. Dimensions for your target devices range from 176x220 to 480x640. And with Windows Mobile 6, add to that a new "medium" DPI, a 320x320 display form factor. The device emulators included with your SDK will help you develop and test on multiple devices. But depending on your app, you may need to detect screen size and adjust accordingly, especially if you're using non-vectorized assets. Fortunately, Windows Mobile forms include control anchoring, auto-sizing, and other features that help you adjust on the fly. For more information on adapting to variable displays, read "Adapt Your App."
  • UI differences especially affect your ability to leverage a single code base across multiple devices. Fortunately, Visual Studio 2005 goes further than any previous version of Visual Studio in separating UI code from functionality. So you should have no problem architecting your project appropriately.
  • Because you're dealing with a much smaller screen space, you should review all of the features of your app and decide what absolutely must stay and what can be eliminated. Mobile apps are not really intended to be full-featured versions of your desktop programs (though by the time we're all wearing holographic display buttons on our shirts, that may change—no doubt that's coming soon from the embedded group). Believe it or not, your customer service department will actually play a big role in helping you define what to keep and what to jettison for the sake of simplicity. Ask your support staff. Canvas users. Prioritize features and include just the essentials.
  • Along those lines, reduce clutter. Remove menu options. Remove UI controls. Simplify wherever you can. On a Windows Mobile Professional device (formerly known as a Pocket PC), for example, you have a total of two main menu options—one for the left button and one for the right. These can have flyouts, which can spawn more flyouts. But obviously the more intricate your menu tree, the more thumbling you'll be asking of your unappreciative user. (Thumbling: from thum-ble [v.], to fumble with one's thumb.)
One last thing—as you can guess, MEDC 2007 features an entire track on this very subject called "Application Development," with 77 different sessions, including breakouts, instructor-led labs, and hands-on labs.

Mobile Web Apps
As a mobile user, you've probably begun bookmarking mobile-friendly Web sites. So you know the benefits of designing versions of your site for mobile, or the drawbacks of neglecting mobile users. The question then becomes how to do it.

Unlike mobile client apps, which are based on .NET Compact Framework, your Web apps will be developed and deployed just as they are now, with one key difference: again it comes down to UI. You have smaller real estate, lower resolution, lower color depth, and less client-side functionality. At least that's the case today.

Fortunately, the ASP.NET page framework includes three namespaces specifically for developing mobile sites:

  • System.Web.UI.MobileControls.MobilePage
  • System.Web.UI.MobileControls
  • System.Web.Mobile
These server controls help you target a variety of mobile devices and function pretty much the same way as the controls you use now. For example, a TextBox is still a TextBox. Currently, these are the controls you'll be using:
  • AdRotator
  • Calendar
  • Command
  • CompareValidator
  • CustomValidator
  • Form
  • Image
  • Label
  • Link
  • List
  • MobilePage
  • ObjectList
  • Panel
  • PhoneCall
  • RangeValidator
  • RegularExpressionValidator
  • RequiredFieldValidator
  • SelectionList
  • StyleSheet
  • TextBox
  • TextView
  • ValidationSummary
Mobile Page Coding Tips
When designing your mobile page, here are a few things to keep in mind:
  • For testing, you can use the emulators in the Windows Mobile SDK. But testing for non-Windows devices can be a little trickier and may involve installing emulators from other device manufacturers.
  • Use the MobileCapabilities class to detect the capabilities of your visitor's device. This allows you to discover browser type, screen dimensions, GPS awareness, color depth, and much, much more. You can also filter functionality based on your findings. Read "Mobile Device Capabilities" for more information or review the MobileCapabilities Members list.
  • Simplicity is key! Carefully consider why visitors will be coming to your site and design your mobile pages accordingly. For example, if you have a news site or blog, just give them headlines and links. They don't need to see your precious 100k graphics, especially not when they might be paying by the k. The usual 2- or 3-column layout doesn't translate well, either. As an example, compare Figure 5, as seen in IE 7, to Figure 6, which is as seen in the Windows Mobile 6 Professional emulator. This is how it's done right.
  • Lastly, it almost goes without saying:—if you're not browsing on a mobile device, then start as soon as possible. You'll quickly compile a list of pet peeves of your own that will help you avoid irritating your mobile visitors. You may even come up with the next wildly creative innovation.

Figure 5:

Figure 6:

Where to Go from Here
Just as you already have abundant skills at your disposal, you also have abundant resources. If you want to jump into mobile development feet first, you can do no better than to attend MEDC 2007. But between now and then, this site will get you started with basic and advanced mobile coding techniques. In addition, here are a few more resources from MSDN:

Justin Whitney is a regular contributor to and Jupitermedia. He currently lives in San Francisco, where he consults for leading high-tech firms and writes about emerging technologies.
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Mobile and Embedded DevCon (MEDC) is a global connected community of events focused on collaborative learning, shared knowledge and practical hands-on development. This annual event is tailored for the developers, IT professionals and business professionals who are looking to innovate and scale their mobile and or embedded development investments, applications and solutions.

MEDC is coming to:
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Taiwan - Taipei - May 29
Korea - Seoul - May 30
Japan - Tokyo - June 6
Singapore - June 8
India - Mumbai - June 14-16
China - Beijing - June 21-22
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